Spine Dragon site logo: Michael J H McCarthy, Consultant Spinal Surgeon

Medical Students

This material is provided for the use of Medical Students.

Reading List

Articular Cartilage

ASIA Chart

ASIA Key Sensory Points

ASIA Motor Exam Guide


Bone Formation Remodelling

Bone Remodelling

Cardiff Medical School Clinical examination guide_final

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome BMJ 2009

Diagnosis Treatment LBP

Disc prolapse evidence 2016

Disc prolapse non operative 2016

Disc prolapse pathology 2016

Fracture Healing 1

Fracture Healing 2

Fracture Healing 3

GMC End of Life Guidance

Identifying Serious Causes of Back Pain

LBP - pathophysiology and Mx

LBP Child

LBP Overview NEJM

LBP Part 1 Lancet

LBP Part 2 Lancet

LBP Primary Care BMJ 2014

Low Back Pain and Imaging BMJ 2021

Musculoskeletal Examination

Musculoskeletal Examination Arthritis Research UK

Neurophysiology Online Lecture

NICE low back pain and sciatica in over 16s assessment and management 2016

NICE low back pain and sciatica low back pain and sciatica overview 2016

NICE low back pain sciatica BMJ

NICE low back pain sciatica BMJ 2

NICE managing long term sickness and incapacity for work overview

NICE neuropathic pain neuropathic pain overview

Nonsurgical Mx of acute and chronic LBP

Non specific low back pain

NSLBP Lancet 1

NSLBP Lancet 2



Osteoporosis Risk Assessment

Palliative Care

Palliative Care Pain Control

Pathophysiology Nerve Injury 1

Pathophysiology Nerve Injury 2

Pathophysiology Nerve Injury 3

Reflexes BMJ 2019

Role of surgery in LBP 2007

Spinal Cord Disorders

Spinal Infections

Spinal Stenosis

Spine Examination

Spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis

The Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity